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Reference Sources

The first thing you may notice about the reference list is that the numbers are not consecutive. References are removed when a business or professional withdraws their published information about false positives. Often this is because they want to avoid the appearance of helping those guilty of drug abuse more than they want to help innocent people who get a false positive drug test result.

If you need to convince someone that a particular false positive is possible then you need an authoritative reference. The three best sources are:
  1. The manufacturer of the drug
  2. The manufacturer of the drug tests
  3. Government agencies responsible for testing
The following reference sources should be helpful. These are the sources for the assertions made about false positives published on the big list.


Reference 1 Source: Although "Legal Bulletin 6.4" appears to have been removed from the Internet it may still be available from the Lewisburg Prison, PA USA. Or from the publishing source, Bucknell University, College of Engineering, Lewisburg, PA.

Urine drug testing is an established part of prison life for inmates. This document describes drug testing of inmates in prisons; procedures, types of tests, limitations of testing, procedures across the country, substances that may cause false positives, challenges to urinalysis procedures in prisons (with case examples), and a "What Can You Do" section for inmates.

Source 1 gives references for the following drugs and substances: 4-Way Nasal Spray, A.P.C. w/codeine, Acet-AM, Acetaminoph w/codeine, Advil, Alka-Seltzer Plus, Allerest, Amesec, Anaprox, Apo-Naproxen, Ascriptin w/codeine, Bronkaid, Bronkotabs, Caldecon, Coffee-Break, Contac, Control, Datril, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Dietac, Dimetapp, Dristan Cough Formula, Empirin w/codeine, Ephedrol, Ephedra (Ma Haung), Estasule Minus, Fenoprofin, Fiorinal w/codeine, Hold Cough Suppressant, Ibuprofen, Morax, Motrin, Naldecon, Nalfon, Naprosyn, Naproxen (Aleve), Navonaprox, Nyquil, Quadrinal®, Quelichine, Quelidrine, Quibron Plus, Robitussin DM, Romilar, Rufin, Silexin, Sinarest, Sine-Off, Sinubid, St. Joseph's Cough Syrup, Tedral, Triaminicin, Triminicol, Trucal, Tussagesic, Tussaminic, Tussinic, Vicks Cough Syrup, and Vicks Formula 44M.




Reference 2 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 3 Source: Book: Ur-Ine Trouble The Truth About Drug Tests by Dr. Kent Holtorf. Backed by 237 medical studies, internationally recognized drug testing expert shows that drug testing is inaccurate, unreliable, racially biased, offers no cost benefit for employers, and is destroying innocent people's lives. Holtorf reveals the ugly truth about drug testing, explains how people can avoid the pitfalls of a false positive test. 5 1/2" x 8 1/2", soft cover, 200 pp.

Source 3 gives references for the following drugs and substances: A.R.M., Actifed, Afrin, Aleve, Allerest, Amfepramone, Amifepramone, Amineptine, Amitriptyline, Anaprox, Ansaid, Anti Anxiety medication, Antiasthmatics that contain phenobarbitol, Artane, Bayer Select Maximum Strength Sinus Pain Relief Caplets, Bayer Select Pain Relief Formula, Bentyl®, Benylin, Benzphetamine, Bromocription, Bronkaid, Cafergot®, Capital and Codeine Oral Solution, Cathne, Cheracol Sinus, Clinoril, Clobenzorex, Comtrex, Contact, Contact Non-Drowsy Formula Sinus Caplets, Cramp End Tablets, Cylert, Deprenyl, Desoxyephedrine, Dexatrim, Dexdenfluramine, Dexedrine, Dexfenfluramine, Dextroamphetamine, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diabetes, Didrex, Dilantin, Dimetapp, Doco children's cough syrup, Dolobid, Donnatol (for irritable bowel syndrome), Dristan Cold caplets, Drixoral Cold and Flu, Edecrin, Efidac/24, Efotamine, Elavil, Eldepryl, Empirin w/codeine, Ephedrine, Ergostat®, Etafediabe, Excedrin IB, Famprofazone, Feldene, Fenelylline, Fenfluramine, Fenproyorex, Fiorinal w/codeine, Flurbiprofen, Genpril, Haltran, Hempseed Oil, Hydergine, Hydroymethamphetamone, Ibuprin, Ibuprofen, Ifenoprofen, Imitrex Hydergine®, Indocin, Ketoprofen, Kidney disease, Kidney infection, Lisuride, Liver Disease, Lodine, Lysergol, Marax, Margestic, Marinol®, Maximum Strength Sine-aid, Maximum Strength Sudafed Sinus, Maximum Strength Tylenol Sinus gelcaps, Meclomen, Medipren, Mediprim, Mefenorex, Mephentermine, Mesocarb, Methoxyphenamine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Methysergiside, Midol, Morazone, Motrin, Nalfon, Naprosyn, Naproxen (Aleve), Neosynephrine, No Drowsiness Sinarest Tablets, NSAIDS, Nuprin, Nyquil, Ornade, Orudis KT, Orudis®, Oxaprozin, Pamprin®, Pedacare, Pemoline, Percocet, Percodan®, Phendimetrazine, Phenegan-D, Phenergan®, Phenmetrazine, Phentermine, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Pholedrine, Poppy Seeds, Prescription sleeping pills, Primatine Tablets, Promethazine, Promethegan, Propylephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Redux, Relafen, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Rifampicin (antibiotic), Robitussin Cold and Flu, Rufin, Selegiline (Eldepryl), Sinex, Sinus Excedrin Extra Strength Caplets, Sudafed, Tavist-D, Tolectin®, Trendar Cramp Relief Formula, Triaminic 12, Triprolidine, Tylenol (acetaminophen) with Codeine®, Tylenol Sinus gelcaps, Maximum Strength, Vicks Inhaler, Vicks Nyquil, Vicodin ES®, Vitamin B2, Voltaren, Wigraine®, and Zyrtec-D.




Reference 4 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"

Reference 5 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"

Reference 6 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"

Reference 7 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"

Reference 8 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"

Reference 9 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 10 Source: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine Department of Pathology contributed by DN Ionescu, MD, JK Janssen, MS, BI Omalu, MD, MPH: Final Diagnosis

Source 10 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), and Nasal sprays (Vicks inhaler, Afrin).




Reference 11 Source: Drugs.com discussion forum about false positive drug screening: False Positive Drug Screening

Source 11 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Accutrim, Afrin, Allerest, Amfepramone, Amifepramone, Amineptine, Benzphetamine, Bronkotabs, Cathne, Clobenzorex, Contact, Cylert, Deprenyl, Desoxyephedrine, Dexatrim, Dexdenfluramine, Dexedrine, Dexfenfluramine, Dextromethorphan hydrobromide or DXM, Didrex, Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), Dimetapp, Eldepryl, Ephedrine, Etafediabe, Famprofazone, Fenelylline, Fenfluramine, Fenproyorex, Marax, Mephentermine, Mesocarb, Methoxyphenamine, Methphenidate, Morazone, Nyquil, Ortain, OTC diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), Over-the-counter nasal sprays, Pemoline, Phendimetrazine, Phenegan-D, Phenmetrazine, Phentermine, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine (PPA), Pholedrine, Primatine Tablets, Propylephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Redux, Robitussin Cold and Flu, Selegiline (Eldepryl), Sudafed, Tavist-D, Vicks Inhaler, Vicks Nyquil, and Zyrtec-D.




Reference 12 Source: Article on RxList.com: By Charlene Laino, WebMD Health News (Reviewed By Laura J. Martin, MD) Drug Tests Often Trigger False Positives

Source 12 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Bupropion (Wellbutrin)




Reference 13 Source: Drug Test Facts published by
SoftLayer Technologies Inc.
1950 N Stemmons Freeway
Dallas, TX 75207

Test Standards & Accuracy

Source 13 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amoxicillin, Antibiotics, DHEA, Hamantashen, Ifenoprofen, and Purim cookies.




Reference 14 Source: The Lectric Law Library is a legal resource for legal pros & laypeople alike. Drug testing in the Workplace

Source 14 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Advil, Codeine, Nyquil, and Vicks Formula 44M.




Reference 15 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 16 Source: OBGYN.NET is an online discussion forum for obstetrics and gynecology: They make getting to a specific page a little difficult. First click on this link to their forum. Once that page loads, select October 2007 from their calendar. Then select the October 1st message: "I found this Manual Helpful".

Source 16 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Accutrim, Advil, Afrin, Aleve, Allerest, Amfepramone, Amoxicillin, Bronkaid, Cathne, Contact, Cough suppressants with Dextromethorphan (DXM), Dexatrim, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diabetes, Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), Dimetapp, Dronabinol (Marinol), Ephedrine, Etafediabe, Excedrin IB, Hempseed Oil, Ibuprofen, Ketamine, Ketoprofen, Kidney disease, Kidney infection, Liver Disease, Marax, Mesocarb, Morazone, Motrin, Naproxen (Aleve), Nasal sprays (Vicks inhaler, Afrin), Nuprin, Nyquil, Orudis KT, Over-the-counter nasal sprays, Phenegan-D, Phenergan®, Phenylpropanolamine (PPA), Pholedrine, Poppy Seeds, Primatine Tablets, Promethazine, Promethegan, Purim cookies, Redux, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Robitussin Cold and Flu, Sudafed, Tavist-D, Tonic water, Vicks Inhaler, Vicks Nyquil, and Vitamin B2.




Reference 17 Source: Forensic Science International, Volume 143, Issues 2-3, 16 July 2004, Pages 183-186
Abstract
Poppy seeds contain morphine in different amounts. Reported concentrations are up to 294 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds. Five volunteers ate poppy seed products (50 mg morphine/kg poppy seeds). In urine, all on-site tests were enzyme immunologically positive for opiates and were positive to morphine by GC/MS. All the blood samples were negative to morphine by EIA and to free morphine by GC/MS. However, after hydrolysis, morphine was detected by GC/MS in all cases.

Poppy seeds were also proven to cause a positive drug test on the popular TV show "Mythe Busters"




Reference 18 Source: Toxicology Lab Technical Brief from Dr. Joseph Graas, Ph.D. published by Medical Assisted Treatment of America, a non-profit organization: Drug Tests

Source 18 gives references for the following drugs and substances: A.R.M., Accutrim, Acro-Lase Plus®, Actifed, Actifed with Codeine Cough Syrup®, Adderall, Advil, Afrin, Aleve, Allerest, Alprazolam, Ambenyl, Amineptine, Amogel PG®, Amoxicillin, Amphetaminil, Anaprox, Antibiotics, Antrocol Elixor®, Aspirin with Codeine, Astramoprh PF ®, Ativan® (lorazepam), Bayer Select Maximum Strength Sinus Pain Relief Caplets, Bayer Select Pain Relief Formula, Bentyl®, Benzatropine/Artane®, Benzedrine®Amphetamines, Benzphetamine, Biphetamine® for Amphetamines, Bromocriptine/Parlodel®, Broncholate CS, Bronkaid, Buprenex®, Buprenorphine, Cafergot®, Capital and Codeine Oral Solution, Captagon®, Cheracol, Chlordiazepoxide, Clinoril, Clobenzorex, Clonazepam, Codinal PH®, Contact, Contact Non-Drowsy Formula Sinus Caplets, Cramp End Tablets, Dalmane®, Darvon®, Deconsal, Deprenyl, Desoxyephedrine, Desoyn®, Dexatrim, Dexedrine, Diabismul®, Diazepam (generic name for Valium), Dicyclomine, Didrex, Diet aids with phenylpropanolamine (Dexatrim, Accutrim), Dihyrocodeine, Dilaudid®, Dimetane-DC Cough Syrup ®, Dimetapp, Dimethylamphetamine, Dinintel®, Dolobid, Dolophine®, Donnagel-PG ®, Donnatal®, Dormonocet®, Dristan Cough Formula, Drixoral Cold and Flu, Dronabad®, Dronabinol (Marinol), Duramorph®, Durophet® Amphetamines, Edecrin, Efidac/24, Elderpryl®, Emprin with Codeine®, Ephedrine, Ergostat®, Ergotamine, Ethylamphetamine, Excedrin IB, Famprofazone, Feldene, Fencamine, Fenelylline, Fenproporex, Finedal®, Fioricet with Codeine®, Fiorinal w/codeine, Flurazepam, Fluriprofen®, Furfenorex, Genpril, Gradumet®, Haltran, Homatropine Methylbromide, Hycodan®, Hydrocodone, Hydrocodone Bitartrate, Hydromorphone, Ibuprofen, Ifenoprofen, Imitrex Hydergine®, Indocin, Infantol Pink ®, Infumorf, Isoclor Expectorant, Kaoden with Codeine®, Kaodene with Paregoric®, Kenesed®, Ketoprofen, Klonopin®, Libritab®, Librium®, Limbitrol®, Lisuride/Dopergin®, Lodine, Loprazolam, Lorazepam, Luminal®, Lysergol, Marax, Marinol®, Maximum Strength Sinus Gelcaps, Maximum Strength Tylenol Sinus gelcaps, Meclomen, Medipren, Mefenorex, Mefenorex, Mesocarb, Methadone, Methysergide/Sansert®, Midol, Motrin, MS Contin Tablets®, MSIR®, Mudrane GC®, Nalfon, Naprosyn, Nembutal Sodium, Neosynephrine, No Drowsiness Sinarest Tablets, Nonprescription products that contain opium (i.e., morphine), Novahistine DH®, Novahistine Expectorant®, NSAIDS, Nucofed Expectorant, Numorphan®, Nuprin, Nyquil, Obetrol® Amphetamines, Oramorph, Ornade, Orudis KT, Orudis®, Over-the-counter nasal sprays, Oxaprozin, Oxazepam, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Pamprin®, Paracodine®, Paregoric, Par-Glycerol-C (CV), Pediacof®, Pentobarbital Sodium, Percodan®, Phenaphen with Codeine®, Phenegan-D, Phenergan VC®, Phenergan with Codeine®, Phenergan®, Phenergan-D, Phenobarbital, Phenylephrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Poly-Histine, Pondinil®, Prenylamine, Prescription medications that contain codeine, Prescription NSAIDS, Primatine Tablets, Promethazine, Promethegan, Propoxyphene, Propylephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Quadrinal®, Rescudose, Rexatal®, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), Ritalin®, Rivotril®, Robitussin A-C®, Robitussin Cold and Flu, Robitussin DAC®, Roxanol, Secobarbital, Secobarbital Sodium Bellergal-S®, Seconal Sodium, Selegiline (Eldepryl), Serax®, Sine-Aid Tablets Maximum Strength, Sinus Excedrin Extra Strength Caplets, Solfoton®, Soma with Codeine, Sudafed, Synalgos DC®, Tavist-D, Tegisec®, Tolectin®, Tonic water, Trendar Cramp Relief Formula, Triaminic 12, Triaminic Expectorant with Codeine®, TriazolamHalcion®, Triprolidine, Tussar 2®, Tussar SF®, Tussi-Organiden, Tylenol (acetaminophen) with Codeine®, Tylenol Sinus gelcaps, Maximum Strength, Valium® (Diazepam), Valrelease®, Vicks Inhaler, Vicks Nyquil, Vicodin ES®, Vitamin B2, Voltaren, Wigraine®, Xanax® (Niravam, Alprazolam), and Zyrtec-D.




Reference 19 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 20 Source: Dr. Martin S. Spiller, DMD
208 Main Street
P.O. Box 689
Townsend, MA 01469

Find his page about local anesthesia. He keeps moving it around.

Source 20 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Advil, Amoxicillin, Ampicin, Antibiotics, Asthma medications, Codeine, Contac, Cough medicines, Diabetes, Diazepam (generic name for Valium), Dilantin, Empirin w/codeine, Ephedra, Ephedrine-based compounds, Fiorinal w/codeine, Kidney disease, Liver Disease, Lodine, Ma Huang (Ephedra sinica), Mini-thins, Motrin, NSAIDS, Nuprin, Nyquil, Over-the-counter nasal sprays, Pamprin®, Percocet, Percodan®, Percovil, Phenobarbital, Poppy Seeds, Prescription NSAIDS, Prescription sleeping pills, Pseudoephederine, Robitussin, Sudafed, Tolectin®, Tylenol (acetaminophen) with Codeine®, Tylenol 3, Tylenol 4, Tylenol Sinus, Valium® (Diazepam), and Wygesic.




Reference 21 Source: Article in the Oregon Herald by Rus Belville. Note that the Oregon Herald is a non-profit news publication:

Workplace Drug Testing

Source 21 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amoxicillin, Asthma medications, B-2 vitamin, Cold remedies with dextromethorphan, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diabetes, Hempseed Oil, Ifenoprofen, Kidney infection, Liver Disease, Naproxen (Aleve), Nasal sprays (Vicks inhaler, Afrin), Poppy Seeds, Pseudoephedrine, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), and Zyrtec-D.




Reference 22 Source: PDF file from the American Association for Clinical Chemistry:

Metabolites of chlorpromazine and brompheniramine may cause false- positive urine amphetamine results with monoclonal EMIT d.a.u. immunoassay

Source 22 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Bromphenlramlne, Chiorpromazlne, Ephedra, Ephedrine-based compounds, Phenylpropanolamine, Pseudoephedrineare.




Reference 23 Source: Drug Information Provided by Lexi-Comp published on the Merck Manuals Online Medical Library website:

Source 23 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Chlorpromazine




Reference 24 Source: Medscape from WebMD is a part of WebMD Health Professional Network that includes theHeart.org and eMedicine.com.

Antihistamine-Induced Rhabdomyolysis: Discussion

Source 24 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Benadryl (Diphenhydramine), Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and Tylenol Simply Sleeps (Diphenhydramine).




Reference 25 Source: American Medical Association December 26, 2001-Vol 286, No. 24. This publication may be available at your local public library.

Source 25 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Cipro (Fluoroquinolone antibiotic), Clinafloxacin, Enoxacin, Gatifloxacin, Levofloxacin (Fluoroquinolone antibiotic), Lomefloxacin, Moxifloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Norfloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Ofloxacin (antibiotic), Pefloxacin, Poppy Seeds, Quinolones, Rifampin, and Sparfloxacin.




Reference 26 Source: Lawyers And Settlements . com published by Online Legal Media. This is their legal news source and anchor publication, which has been on the web since 2001.

False Poistive

Source 26 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Advil, Amoxicillin, Anti Inflammatories such as Naproxyn, Chiorpromazlne, Demerol, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diazepam (generic name for Valium), Dristan Nasal Spray, Elavil, Fluspirilene, Ifenoprofen, Midol, Midol, Motrin, Naproxyn, Neosynephren, Neosynephrine, Nuprin, Nyquil, Perylamine, Poppy Seeds, Primatene-M, Propanolamine, Quinine in Tonic water, Sudafed, Trendar, Trendar Cramp Relief Formula, Vicks Formula 44M, and Vicks Nasal Spray.




Reference 27 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 28 Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy published by Harvey Whitney Books Company.

False-Positive Urine Opiate Screening Associated with Fluoroquinolone Use

Source 28 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Avelox (Fluoroquinolone), Cipro (Fluoroquinolone antibiotic), Cipro XR (Fluoroquinolone), Ciprofloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Ciprofloxacin extended-release (Fluoroquinolone), Enoxacin, Factive (Fluoroquinolone), Floxin (Fluoroquinolone), Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, Gemifloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Levaquin® (Fluoroquinolone), Levofloxacin (Fluoroquinolone antibiotic), Moxifloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Norfloxacin (Fluoroquinolone), Noroxin (Fluoroquinolone), Ofloxacin (antibiotic), Pefloxacin, and Proquin XR (Fluoroquinolone).




Reference 29 Source: Medimpex United Inc.- Rapid Drug Test Kits, a wholesale Distribution Center. Since 1996 Medimpex United Inc. has been a leading source for rapid drug test kits.

F.A.Q.s

Source 29 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Advil, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Demerol, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diazepam, Dristan Nasal Spray, Elavil, Ephedrine, Hempseed Oil, Ibuprofen, Midol, Motrin, Neosynephren, Nuprin, Nyquil, Phenypropanolamine, Poppy Seeds, Primatene-M, Quinine in Tonic water, Shampoo containing hemp, Sudafed, Trendar Cramp Relief Formula, Vicks Formula 44M, and Vicks Nasal Spray.




Reference 30 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 31 Source: Post by Doctor Robert A. Katz on forum owned and operated by Doctor Robert Hsiung, MD.

SSRIs bupropion and urine

Source 31 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Fluoxetine (Prozac), Prozac (Fluoxetine Hydrochloride), and Zoloft.




Reference 32 Source: PowerPoint Presentation from the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services.

Drug screen PDF

Source 32 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amantadine, Black Pearls (Tung Sheuh pills), Bupropion (Wellbutrin), Chinese herb pills, Chlorpromazine, Chlorpromazine, Cipro (Fluoroquinolone antibiotic), Cows head pills (Chinese herb), Desipramine, Dextromethorphan (DXM), Diphenhydramine, Doxylamine, Efavirenz, Ephedrine, Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, Ketamine, Ma Huang (Ephedra sinica), Meperidine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Miracle herb pills (Chinese herb), NSAIDS, Phenylpropanolamine, Poppy Seeds, Potentsex pills (Chinese herb), Quinine in Tonic water, Ranitidine, Rifampin, Thioridazine, and Trazedone (trazadone, trazodone).




Reference 33 Source: Redwood Toxicology Laboratory Inc. (RTL), is one of the nation's premier forensic drug testing facilities. The results of their drug testing provide legally defensible results. RTL also sells millions of instant urine tests and oral fluid drug tests each year. They are THE experts. Laboratory:

PDF File: Cross Reactions

Source 33 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Adam (slang), Afrinol , Allobarbital, Alphenol, Alprazolam, Amitriptyline, Amobarbital, Anxitol, Aprobarbital, Barbital, Briantum, Bromazepam, Butabarbital, Butalbital, Butisol, Centrax, Chlordiazepoxide, Clobazam, Clonazepam, Clonopin, Clorazepate, Co-codamol, Codafen, Codafen, Codeine Linctus, Codeine Phosphate, Co-dydramol, Co-proximal, Cyclimorph, Darvocet, Darvon, Delorazepam, Demetrin, Desoxyn, Dexedrine, Dextroamphetamine , Dextropropoxyphene, DHC, Diazemuls, Diazepam, Dihydrocodeine, Dilaudid, Diocalm, d-Methamphetamine HCL, Dolophine, Donnatal, Doxepin, Duramorph, E (slang), Ecstasy (slang), Efavirenz, Entersan, Estazolam, Ethylmorphine, Eve (slang), Fioricet, Fiorinal, Flunitrazepam, Frisium, Galcodine, Galenphol, Gamanil, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Hydrostat, Kapake, Klonopin, Koalin and Morphine Mixture, Lerisum, Lexotan, Librium, l-Methamphetamine HCL, Lofepramine, Lomont, Loratab, Lorazepam, Lorcet, Lormetazepam, Love Drug (slang), Luminal, Medacepan, Medazepam, Methadone Hydrochloride, Methadose, Methamprex, Methedrine, Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) , Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Migraleve, Mogadon, Morcap, Morphine Sulfate, MS Contin, Nembutal, Nitrazepam, Nobritol, Nobrium, Noctamide, Opazimes, Oramorph, Oxazepam, Ox-pam, Oxycontin, Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)/Codeine, Paracetamol with codeine, Paramol, Pavacol-D, Pediatric, Pentobarbital, Percodan, Phenobarbital, Phenobarbitone, Phentermine, Pholcodine, Physetone, Prazepam, Preparations, ProSom, Pseudoephedrine , Pylorid, Ranitidine, Remedeine, Remedeine Forte, Remedine, Restoril, Rivotril, Rohypnol, Roxanol, Roxicet, Secobarbital, Seconal, Serax, Sertraline, Severedol, Sinequan, Solpadol, Solpadol, Somnite, Soneryl, Stesolid, Strong BP, Sudafed , Sustiva, Temazepam, Thebacon, Tranxene, Tylenol (acetaminophen) with Codeine®, Tylenol 3, Tylenol Cold (combination) , Tylex, Tylex, Valclair, Valium, Vick's Inhaler, Vicodin, Xepin, XTC (slang), Zantac, and Zoloft.

At http://www.redwoodtoxicology.com/resources/drug_info/phencyclidine.html they give references for thioridazine (Mellaril), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), dextromethorphan, and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).




Reference 34 Source: Technical Briefs article: Camara PD, Audette L, Velletri K, et al. False-positive immunoassay results for urine benzodiazepines in patients receiving oxaprozin (Daypro). Published by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

False-positive immunoassay results for urine benzodiazepine in patients receiving oxaprozin (Daypro)

Source 34 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Daypro and Oxaprozin.




Reference 35 Source: The Food and Drug Administration has removed their helpful information about false positives.




Reference 36 Source: Oregon State University College of Pharmacy: The College of Pharmacy trains tomorrow's practitioners and researchers in the field of pharmacy and advises policymakers on how to improve drug research and affordability.

Article removed from website. Thanks to the War on Drugs someone decided you might hurt yourself with this information.

Source 36 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Valerian Root and extract, Pseudoephedrine, Ephedrine, Phenylpropanolamine, Vick's nasal inhaler, Phenteramine, Selegiline, Ranitidine, Chloroquine, Labetolol, Chlorpromazine, Trimethobenzamide, Thorazine, Doxepin, Bupropion, Desipramine, Amantadine, Joy detergent, and Ephedra/MaHuang.




Reference 37 Source: Rxlist.com is an Internet drug index:

Protonix - Click on page 3

Source 37 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Aciphex, Dexlansoprazole, Esomeprazole, Kapidex, Lansoprazole, Nexium, Omeprazole, Pantoprazole, Prevacid, Prilosec, Proton pump inhibitors, Protonix, Rabeprazole, and Zegerid.




Reference 38 Source: Sustiva package insert published by Bristol-Myers Squibb, a global biopharmaceutical company.

Package Insert for Sustiva




Reference 39 Source: Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products.

Atripla




Reference 40 is no longer available due to the "War on Drugs"




Reference 41 Source: University of Michigan Health System
Department of Pathology
Central Distribution 2F367 UH SPC 5054
1500 E. Medical Center Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5054

Pathology also provides courier pick up to MLabs clients and UM Health Center sites.

Handbook Drug Analysis & Toxicology

Source 41 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Coca tea, Coca leaf, Coca flour, Coca oil, and Hydrocodone.




Reference 42 Source: European Journal of Emergency Medicine:

Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay




Reference 43 Source: The University of Maryland Counseling Center:
The University of Maryland Counseling Center provides comprehensive psychological and counseling services to meet the mental health and developmental needs of students and others in the campus community.

Page "int_dw58.htm" titled No. 58 Letters appears to have been removed from the Internet but may still be available if you contact them.

Source 43 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Antihistamines in general, Bentyl®, Contac Severe Cold Formula, Cremacoat 4, Elavil, Norflex, Nyquil, Phenergan®, Soma, Unisom Nighttime Sleep Aid, and Vicks Formula 44M.




Reference 44 Source: Article from Psychiatry (Edgmont) provided courtesy of Matrix Medical Communications republished by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA.

False-Positive Urine Screening for Benzodiazepines. A Two-year Retrospective Chart Analysis

Source 44 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Sertraline




Reference 45 Source: Erowid.org, a website dedicated to documenting the complex relationship between humans and psychoactives.

Website

Source 45 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Benadryl (Diphenhydramine)




Reference 46 Source: The official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, dedicated to the health of all children:

False-Positive Tricyclic Antidepressant Drug Screen Results Leading to the Diagnosis of Carbamazepine Intoxication

Source 46 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Carbamazepine, Chlorpromazine, Cyclobenzaprine, Cyproheptadine, Diphenhydramine, Norcyclobenzaprine, Perphenazine, Thioridazine, and Trimeprazine.




Reference 47 Source: Book: Principles of Addiction Medicine By Richard K. Ries, Shannon C. Miller, David A. Fiellin, Richard Saitz

Source 47 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amitriptyline, Benzphetamine, Buproprion, Buspirone, Cephradine, Chlorpromazine, Desipramine, Diltiazem, Doxepin, Fentanyl, Fluoxetine (Prozac), Haloperidol, Labetolol, Metoclopramide, Prochlorperazine, Risperidone, Sertraline, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Verapamil.




Reference 48 Source: Merck Manuals: All The Merck Manuals are a not-for-profit basis as a service to the community. Data reviewed by Patrick G. O'Connor, MD

Merck Manual

Source 48 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Ibuprofen, Ketipinor (quetiapine), Poppy Seeds, Pseudoephedrine, Quetiapine (Seroquel), Seroquel (quetiapine), and Tricyclic antidepressants.




Reference 49 Source: PDF file (iHub-PI.pdf) from Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Bristol-Myers Squibb House, Uxbridge Business Park, Sanderson Road, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 1DH. Telephone: 0800-731-1736.

Source 49 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Sustiva




Reference 50 Source: U.S. National Library of Medicine, a government website:

Dimethylamylamine: a drug causing positive immunoassay results for amphetamines.

Source 50 gives references for the following drugs and substances: DMAA (dimethylamylamine)




Reference 51 Source: Gateway Recovery Services and the Pathology Department of Borgess Hospital, Kalamazoo, MI:

Information removed - apparently it might have aided those who abuse drugs.

Source 51 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Metronidazole and Tolmetin




Reference 52 Source: Blue Grass Drug Screen, Inc. Their iCup testing device is used by:
  • Military - Drug testing
  • Manufacturers - Pre-employment drug test, random drug test, and post accident drug testing.
  • Businesses - Drug Free Workplace testing programs.
  • Occupational Medical Facilities
  • Drug treatment facilities and Rehabilitation
  • Probation and Parole drug testing
  • Correctional Facility drug testing
  • High Schools - Drug testing high school athletes.
PDF file: Cross Reaction Chart shows drugs that may cause problems with their test results. Problematic results are listed in red.

Source 52 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Procaine, ProSom, Pylorid, Ranitidine, Ranitidine, Remedine, Restoril, Rivotril, Rohypnol, Secobarbital, Seconal, Serax, Sinequan, Solpadol, Somnite, Soneryl, Stesolid, Strong BP, Sustiva (Efanirenz), Temazepam, Thebacon, Tranxene, Triazolam, Triptafen, Triptafen-M, Tryptizol, Tuinal, Tylenol 3, Tylenol with codeine, Tylex, Valclair, Venlafaxine hydrochloride (Effexor), Vicodin, Xanax, Xepin, XTC (slang), and Zantac.




Reference 53 Source: Emergency Department
Baptist Medical Center Downtown
800 Prudential Drive
Jacksonville, FL 32207 USA
Reported by Geraci MJ, Peele J, McCoy SL, Elias B.

Published by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (PubMed), a government website.

Source 53 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Lamotrigine (Lamictal®)




Reference 54 Source: PDF file from The American Association for Clinical Chemistry. volume 55.

PDF file about research at the Umass Memorial Medical Center, Department of Hospital Laboratories in Worcester, MA.

Source 54 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Suboxone




Reference 55 Source: PDF file from Pfizer.

PDF file: Highlights of Prescribing Information about Protonix.

Source 55 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Protonix and other proton pump inhibitors.




Reference 56 Source: drugs.com.

Complete Phenobarbital information: Specific and up to date information about Phenobarbital.

Source 56 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Phenobarbital.




Reference 57 Source: IT Laboratories is an ISO-certified drug testing and toxicology laboratory that provides custom-designed drug testing services.

PDF file: Physician?s Reference for Urine and Blood Drug Testing and Interpretation. See the section titled "Drugs Known to Yield ?False Positive? Immunoassay Screening Results".

Source 57 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amantadine (Amantadine), Bupropion (Wellbutrin®/Zyban®), Chloroquine (Aralen®), Chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), Desipramine (Norpramine®), Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®), Ephedrine (Ephedra/Ma Huang), Fenfluramine (Fen Phen), Labetalol (Labetalol), Mexiletine (Mexitil®), Procainamide (Procainamide), Phentermine (Adipex), Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine®), Propranolol (Inderal®), Pseudoephedrine (Claritin-D®/Sudafed®), Quinacrine (Atabrine/Mepacrine), Rantidine (Zantac®), Selegiline (Deprenyl), Trazadone (Desyrel®), Phenytoin (Dilantin®), Primidone (Mysoline®), Oxaprozin (Daypro?), Sertraline (Zoloft®), Efavirenz (Sustiva®), Hemp Seed Oil (Cannabis Seed/Hemp Oil), Pantoprazole (Protonix), Fluroquinolones (Levaquin®), Ofloxacin (Floxin®), Papaverine (Papaverine), Rifampin (Rimactane), Hydrocodone (Vicodin®), Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®), Oxymorphone (Numorphan), and Codeine.




Reference 58 Source: Book: Clinical Toxicological Analysis: Procedures, Results, Interpretation

Published by Wiley-VCH, available from Amazon.com

This book is a complete reference on the standardized methods for laboratory analysis for clinical toxicologists.

Source 58 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Amisulpride.




Reference 59 Source: J Hertelendy, RPh (Pharmacist)
Drug and Poison Information Center
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
University of Cincinnati

http://www.netwellness.org/question.cfm/7603.htm

Source 58 gives references for the following drugs and substances: bupivacaine (Marcain, Marcaine, Sensorcaine and Vivacaine).




Reference 60 Source: MEDTOX Journal
Published by MEDTOX Scientific, Inc.
402 West County Road D
St. Paul, MN 55112

MEDTOX operates a SAMHSA-certified drug testing laboratory, a CAP and CLIA-certified clinical laboratory and a diagnostic division which is an FDA registered establishment.

Medtrox services include:
  • Employment Drug Testing
  • Global Central Laboratory Services
  • Bioanalytical Services for Clinical Trials
  • Reference Laboratory Testing
  • Prescription Management Testing
  • Hospital Testing Services
  • Criminal Justice and Rehabilitation Testing
Source 60 gives references for the following drugs and substances: the antibiotic Bactrim (containing sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim), Sustiva, and poppy seeds.




Reference 61 Source: The Encyclopedia of Addictive Drugs




Reference 62 Source: Michael E. Mullins, M.D., Medical Toxicologist with the Division of Emergency Medicine at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

http://www.ajhp.org/content/67/16/1344.abstract/reply

Source 62 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Tramadol (Ultram) , Diphenhydramine (Benadryl), and Bupropion.




Reference 63 Source: Hull MJ, Griggs D, Knoepp SM, Smogorzewska A, Nixon A, Flood JG. Postmortem urine immunoassay showing false-positive phencyclidine reactivity in a case of fatal tramadol overdose. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Patholog 2006; 27: 359-362.




Reference 64 Source: Ly BT, Stone J, Buono C, Wu AH. False-positive phencyclidine urine immunoassay screen due to tramadol (abstract). Clinical Toxicology 2008; 46: 620. Clinical Toxicology is the official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT). Source 64 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Tramadol (Ultram)




Reference 65 Source: Levine B, Smith M. Effects of diphenhydramine on immunoassay of phencyclidine in urine. Clinical Chemistry 1990, 36: 1258. Clinical Chemistry is the leading international journal of clinical laboratory science, providing 2,000 pages per year of peer-reviewed papers that advance the science of the field. Source 65 gives references for the following drugs and substances: Diphenhydramine also is a common false positive for phencyclidine.




Reference 66 Source: Casey ER, Scott MG, Tang S, Mullins ME. Incidence of false positive amphetamine results due to bupropion in the Syva Emit II urine drug screens. The Journal of Medical Toxicology, the official print journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. This is an international, peer-reviewed journal. 2011 DOI: 10.1007/s13181-010- 0131-5 Source 66 gives references for the following drugs and substances: In a hospital study with confirmatory testing of all positive screens, bupropion was the leading cause of false positive amphetamine screens.




Reference 67 Source: Taylor A, MG, Hoch K, Scott MG, Mullins ME. Incidence of false positive 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine results with the Syva EMIT II urine drug screen (abstract). Clinical Toxicology 2008; 46: 412

Source 67 gives references for the following drugs and substances: In a hospital study with confirmatory testing of all positive screens, bupropion was a frequent cause of false positive MDMA screens.




Reference 68 Source: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Source 68 gives references for the following drugs and substances: bupropion, also marketed under the brand names AplenzinTM, Budeprion SR®, Budeprion XL®, Buproban®, Wellbutrin®, Wellbutrin SR®, and Wellbutrin XL®.

Frequency of false positive amphetamine screens due to bupropion using the Syva EMIT II immunoassay




Reference 69 Source: Drugs.com. See the page Minocycline under the section titled "How should I take minocycline?".

Note that Minocycline is also sold under the brand names Dynacin, Minocin, Minocin PAC, Myrac, Solodyn, and Vectrin.



If you get a false positive

If you believe your drug test result is a false positive then always contest it. Tell those in charge of the testing that you believe the result is a false positive and you want the results confirmed.

If you do not contest a false positive drug test the results may label you as a drug abuser, which may go into your medical history and/or on your work record.

Remember that a urine drug test is NOT proof of drug abuse UNTIL it is confirmed by the additional testing of a confirmation test. Typically this is done by a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) test or the newer high-performance liquid chromatography.

The newest test is called LC/MS/MS, which stands for Liquid Chromatography with tandem Mass Spectrometry. This is an analytical technique where the sample is vaporized and ions in the spray are analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Typically, LC/MS methods are sensitive enough to detect and identify concentrations of 10 parts per billion. According to Acculabs Special Analytical Services (SAS), specificity of the LC/MS/MS method results in data with no false positive results.

If you get a false positive drug test result, legal action may be taken against you. There may be charges of drug abuse, loss of your job, or even loss of custody of your children. Seek legal advice from an attorney.

The research into false positives continues so check back periodically for news.

The feedback and questions about false positives has grown to over 240 pages but don't try to print them out. Each of our pages is about 3 printed pages long. It starts here.

Note about hair tests: According to Omega Laboratories, the Enzyme-immunoassay antibodies (EIA) used in screening tests for drugs of abuse in hair are similar to those used to test urine, therefore the potential for substances such as over-the-counter medications to cause a false positive screening result does exist.

There are questions about the constitutionality of drug testing. The authorities can not search your home without a search warrant. Getting a drug test is a search of your property without the warrant. Who does your body belong to if not you? Does your homeowner's insurance require a search of your property before they will insure you? Then why are employers allowed to search your body with a drug test? What do you think?

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