Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

Causes of Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections or UTIs are typically caused by bacteria. Women get UTIs more often than men but men can also get these infections. UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics.

Here is a list of currently known causes of Urinary tract infections

Bacterial infections

Bacterial prostatitis is a bacterial inflammation of the prostate gland in men.

Campylobacter fetus is a food borne bacterial infection, which may vary in severity from mild to severe. The bacteria are opportunistic and mainly affect debilitated patients but can also occur in healthy patients. Abortion due to blood infection in the fetus can occur in pregnant women who become infected. The infection is less likely to cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea than other Campylobacter infections but is prone to causing infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. Animals are the main source of these bacteria (cattle and sheep).

Campylobacter jejuni infection is a common food borne bacterial infection, which may vary in severity from mild to severe. Death can occur in severe cases but tends to occur in patients with other existing illnesses such as liver disease, cancer or HIV. In rare cases the infection can spread to other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. The main source of this infection is undercooked chicken.

Chlamydia infection is one of the most common types of sexually transmitted disease. Chlamydia is a bacterial infection of the genital tract by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is passed from one person another during sexual contact that involves vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal delivery and result in eye infection, blindness, and pneumonia in newborn infants.

Colibacillosis is an infection caused by bacteria called Escherichia coli. This infection can cause severe diarrhea or septicemia. The bacteria can also produce toxins, which can also affect other parts of the body. Some developing countries have endemic areas. Transmission often occurs from contaminated animal products or contact with infected cats and dogs.

E-coli is the type of bacteria that causes food poisoning

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacterial infection in the respiratory system.

Serratia is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Serratia genus. The bacteria can cause urinary tract infections as well as respiratory tract infections, eye infection, pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septicemia, meningitis and wound infections.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a bacterium that is usually transmitted through the use of hospital appliances such as catheters, I.V. lines and breathing tubes in immunocompromised patients.

Tuberculosis or TB is a bacterium that infects the lungs. Many people become symptom-free carriers of the TB bacteria. Although common and deadly in third world countries, until recently tuberculosis was almost non-existent in the developed world. TB and new drug-resistant strains of TB have been making a come back.

Pasteurella multocida is an infectious disease caused by bacteria (Pasteurella multocida). It is often transmitted through bites and scratches from pets, typically found in mammals and fowl.

Conditions that Cause UTIs

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia or BPH is the enlargement of the prostate. This condition is common in older men. BPH is non-cancerous prostrate enlargement that commonly occurs with aging but care must be taken to rule out prostate cancer, which is also possible.

Bladder incontinence during pregnancy.

Eerythroleukemia is a rare condition characterized by the presence of abnormal blood cells (erythroblastic precursors) in the bone marrow and blood. The condition may be acute and/or chronic. It is characterized by anemia and generally leads to the development of acute myelogenous leukemia. The symptoms of the acute form are more severe than the chronic form.

Cystinuria is a rare inherited condition characterized by the abnormal transport of various amino acids (arginine, cystine, lysine, and ornithine) resulting in excess amounts in the urinary system where it can form stones.

Kidney stones are stone-like calcium deposits in the kidney.

Nephrocalcinosis is a condition characterized by calcium salt deposits in the kidneys, which may affect their ability to function. The condition refers to a generally increased level of calcium in the kidneys rather than actual kidney stones.

Renal segmental hypoplasia-induced Hypertension is high blood pressure resulting from either an abnormally developed kidney from a birth defect or from kidney damage resulting from vesicureteral reflux.

Urethral obstruction sequence is a condition characterized by the early obstruction of the urethra.

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the reversal of the flow of urine from bladder back into kidneys.

Urine retention or bladder-emptying problems are a common urological problem with many possible causes. These problems include partial or total inability to excrete urine.

Vesicovaginal fistula is a condition characterized by the formation of a fistula or opening from an internal organ to the vagina.

Woodhouse Sakati syndrome is a condition, which consists of numerous symptoms such as deafness, diabetes, hypogonadism, and mental retardation.

Disorders that Cause UTIs

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is a rare genetic disorder where an enzyme (2, 8-dihydroxyadenine) deficiency results in the formation of urinary tract stone(s).

Hydronephrosis with Peculiar Facies is a rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.

Hypercalciuria, childhood idiopathic is a rare disorder occurring in children where excess calcium is excreted through the urine resulting in the development of stones in the urinary tract.

Nezelof’s syndrome is a disorder of the immune system where the cells that normally fight infection don’t work properly and patients suffer frequent severe infections.

Xanthine oxidase deficiency type II is a rare metabolic disorder characterized by excessive levels of xanthine in the urine. Type II xanthinuria is caused by a deficiency of two enzymes, xanthine dehydrogenase and enzyme aldehyde oxidase which are needed to metabolize xanthine. In severe cases this metabolic abnormality causes kidney stones and kidney failure.

Xanthine oxydase deficiency is a deficiency of an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of purine.

Diseases that Cause UTIs

Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease is a severe form of Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), a genetic kidney disease.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of PKD and is inherited. The symptoms usually develop between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can begin earlier. This genetic kidney disease causes kidney cysts

Polycystic kidney disease or APKD is A genetic disease that causes kidney cysts in one or both kidneys and a gradual loss of normal kidney tissue.

Polycystic kidney disease, The infantile type is severe and symptoms develop very early in life and may even be present during the fetal stage.

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body does not respond to the effects of the insulin, known as insulin resistance. The pancreas of some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce sufficient amounts of insulin.

Urachal cancer is a very rare cancer that occurs in the top of the urinary bladder. The urachus is a tube, which joins the belly button to the top of the bladder. This tube gradually disappears after birth and the amount that remains varies from person to person.

Syndromes that Cause UTIs

BEEC is a rare syndrome characterized by a birth defect where the bladder is inside out and protrudes from the lower abdominal wall. Typically the urethra and genitals are also abnormally formed. The degree of malformation is varies from one patient to the next.

Emanuel syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder where a portion of chromosome 11 is translocated with a portion of chromosome 22. The disorder involves a wide range of abnormalities such as kidney, genital and heart abnormalities, mental retardation, small head and failure to thrive.

Urofacial syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder characterized by an unusual face and abnormalities in organs involved with urination.

X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome (ATR-X) is a condition that features mental retardation, dysmorphic features, and alpha thalassemia.

Birth Defects that Cause UTIs

Bladder diverticulum is a defect where a part of the bladder lining forms a pouch in the muscle wall of the bladder. This defect may be congenital or acquired through conditions such as urinary tract obstruction and infection. The size of the diverticulum determines the severity of the disorder with mild cases having no apparent symptoms.

Congenital megalo-ureter is a birth defect where the ureter is abnormally dilated due to a structural obstruction of the end of the ureter.

Epispadias is a congenital abnormality at the opening of the urethra.

Posterior valve of the urethra is a congenital defect where an abnormal membrane in the back of the male urethra affects urine flow. The urine can flow back through the valve and cause problems for organs such as the urethra, bladder, ureters and even the kidneys.

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is a very rare genetic disease that involves an enzyme deficiency (purine nucleoside phosphorylase – PNP) which causes a buildup of toxic metabolic products that impairs the development of T-cells. The condition is characterized primarily by frequent infections with various neurological symptoms.

Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare inherited metabolic disorder characterized by excessive amounts of oxalate in the urine and deposits of oxalate in the kidneys, which leads to progressive kidney failure. There are two subtypes of Oxalosis; type 1 and type 2 with type 2 involving a deficiency of a liver enzyme called D-Glycerate Dehydrogenase.

UTIs Caused by a Virus

HIV/AIDS is a sexually transmitted virus that causes the life-threatening failure of the immune system.

Teratogenic Agents

Benazepril Hydrochloride is a teratogenic agent. The effect on human fetuses has not been conclusively determined but experimental studies on rats indicate that the use of Benazepril Hydrochloride during pregnancy may cause various harmful effects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of symptoms may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that the exposure occurred.

Enalapril is another teratogenic agent. There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Enalapril (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may cause birth defects on the fetus. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy that at which the exposure occurs.

Vasotec is a Teratogenic Agent. There is evidence to indicate that exposure to Vasotec (an ACE inhibitor) during pregnancy may cause birth defects on a developing fetus. The likelihood and severity of defects may be affected by the level of exposure and the stage of pregnancy at which the exposure occurs.

Other Causes of UTIs

Trichomonas vaginalis is a microscopic parasite found worldwide. Urinary tract infections with trichomonas are called trichomoniasis (trick-oh-moe-nye-uh-sis). Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted parasitic infection.

Urachal cyst is a cyst, which occurs in the remnants between the umbilicus and bladder.

Most urinary tract infections require medical attention because they do not go away by themselves. If you suspect that you have one, see your doctor.